This added an extra parameter: storing crops where no artificial cooling system was possible. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Hassan Fathy (1900-1989) was an Egyptian architect and engineer who has been credited with bringing the vernacular architecture of Egypt to a wider audience, and for putting neglected traditional building systems to work for the poor. In 1963, a large water source was discovered 60 kilometers south of the Kharga Oasis. He pioneered the use of sustainable materials and environmentally friendly design to build housing for low income families who were being relocated from their original village at Old Gourna. Very quickly his first projects showed a deep understanding of Egyptian vernacular architecture. In short, he builds modest and basic constructions for traditional Arab communities. Crops are stored underground to take advantage of its natural inertia. Once again the solution used by Hassan Fathy is the use of clay. Hassan Fathy Egyptian Architect (1900 – 1989) 2. 35 Spectacular Buildings by Egypt’s Architectural Legend Hassan Fathy Today's Google homepage doodle, commemorated Egypt's architectural legend Hassan Fathy's birthday, so we put together a list of the spectacular work he did. The substantial volume combines previously unpublished drawings, personal anecdotes, interviews and photography unfolding Lahir : Alexandria, Mesir 23 Maret 1900 Wafat : Kairo, Mesir 30 November 1989 (di usia 89 tahun) Penghargaan Aga Khan Chairman’s for Architecture 1980 Balzan Prize 1980 Right Livelihood Award 1980 Hassan Fathy adalah seorang arsitek berkebangsaan Mesir. The brick is, in fact, the only material used in his works. Your email address will not be published. See more ideas about architecture, vernacular architecture, architect. In his lifetime he designed more than thirty projects including several villages for the poor. He is one of the Arab architects born in Egypt and he is one of the most famous architects in the world due to his wonderful architectural theories and distinctive buildings that differ in design and construction from any building in the world. Hassan Fathy was an Egyptian architect (1900-1989) who very quickly freed himself from the neoclassical teaching that was the rule for architects of the time. Thus it is with little data that Hassan Fathy built a community in the middle of the desert, creating through architecture a link between the inhabitants, spaces forming the different parts of this micro-society. First of all, the plan of the village is drawn along a north-south axis which allows to take advantage of the shadows of the buildings on the streets all day long. Your donation helps to support and to spread ecovillages around the world. Fathy utilized ancient design methods and materials. New Gourna Village (2015) World Monuments Fund. Dethier points out that Fathy had in fact spent the 1930s working in reinforced concrete, following a Western and international modernist approach. This added an extra parameter: storing crops where no artificial cooling system was possible. The Vernacular Architect of the Egyptian Architect, Hassan Fathy, Accessible and safe technique for maintenance and use of humanure and urine from a dry toilet, ecovillages as transdisciplinary sustainability “classrooms”, Ecological Economics thesis: “Livelihood options in ecological communities”, Tesis sociológica: Formas de organización social de la Ecoaldea “X”, Sociological thesis: Organizational forms of the “X ecovillage”, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. . He trained local inhabitants to make their own materials and build their own buildings. The Global Ecovillage Network envisions a world of empowered people and communities, designing pathways to a sustainable future, while building bridges of hope and international solidarity. The Organization for Desert Development estimated that it has the capacity to continuously irrigate about 1000 acres of land. Hassan Fathy, born in 1900 in Alexandria, Egypt, was an Egyptian architect, artist and poet who had a lifelong commitment to architecture in the Muslim world. The supporting walls are made either of sun dried bricks made of mud and reinforced with straw (adobe), or of local stones, or fired bricks. As new modernist theories began to emerge, he moved away from them and focused on the architecture of Ancient Egypt. These include the Salsabil, a water-fed cooling plate or a fountain named Nafora, which help to provide natural humidification helped with vegetation. Theme By, Hassan Fathy, Building in the Desert in New Baris. Hassan Fathy, Building With the People in New Gourna, La Description de l’Égypte: Antiquités, Volume IV. 12 The photographic credits indicate that apart from material held in the rbscl (Cairo (Egypt), Ameri ; 3 Hassan Fathy dans son temps provides a substantial contribution to the literature on the Egyptian master. While other architects were seeking fame and fortune, Hassan Fathy saw the genius of incorporating traditional design and building materials. It is equipped with many Malkaf, an earthen wind catcher, and secondary towers to speed up air circulation and succeed in reducing the temperature by 15 degrees. The market, the Suk, is the active heart of the community. We can develop or innovate on the design concept of a project, but on the other hand, I believe that the philosophy of Hassan Fathy in architecture is already entire, and one can only try to understand it more and more. See more ideas about vernacular architecture, architecture, architect. “Architectural form should consider the forces in nature of wind, rain, even how an earthquake shaking it would make it fall in a pattern that follows the geological formation of a mountain,” he once wrote. Only a few buildings were constructed such as the market (55x45m), the building in charge of the district administration (30x40m), the outer shell of the museum and the social center, and a few villas. After graduation in 1926 he was shocked by the very poor state of village people, but he did not feel at all that it was suitable either economically or aesthetically to improve it with European modern architecture using iron and concrete. Nevertheless, Hassan Fathy’s constructed and theoretical work in New Baris is remarkably intelligent. 2. Born into an affluent family, Hassan Fathy studied Western architecture at university in Cairo. All his life Hassan Fathy has wanted to use the architectural language of his country to rekindle the people’s faith in their culture. HASSAN FATHY, an Egyptian architect, has taught on the Faculty of Fine Arts in Cairo and served as head of its architectural section. Hassan Fathy was an Egyptian architect, artist, and poet who had a tremendous impact on generations of architects and planners. building. The supporting walls are made either of sun dried bricks made of mud and reinforced with straw (adobe), or of local stones, or fired bricks. Connecting Communities for a Sustainable World. On the other hand 61% of the remaining Hassan Fathy structures areirreversibly altered, since buildings have been severely modified to the extent that they cannotbe retrieved to their original condition.In regards to architectural significance, the survey identified 9 architecturally significantbuildings (15% of the total number of remaining Hassan Fathy structures), which include … . Begin typing your search term above and press enter to search. This first dedicated and cohesive book on Egyptian architect Hassan Fathy (1900-89) compiles an exhaustive amount of diverse material on the modernist architect known for his work developing traditional Arab architecture alongside principles of modernism. With the New Baris project, Hassan Fathy experimented for a new community a project combining urban planning, social organization, natural passive cooling and vernacular architecture. Hassan Fathy (b. Egypt, 1899; d. 1989) Hassan Fathy was born in Egypt in 1899. One such material is the mud brick. All content on this site is licensed under under a. The intention to accommodate several families, to build them a village at low cost, while wishing to federate the community logically guided the choice of the architect for Hassan Fathy. The orientation and size of the streets of this village, built according to the winds, was also a theme that Fathy took up in his natural ventilation system in New Baris. During his lifetime, Hassan Fathy attained international fame and was a dominant, if controversial, figure in Egyptian architecture. By using an almost unique material in a hostile universe, he multiplies the architectural devices in order to build naturally ventilated buildings, to create a community that can work in the middle of the desert, and this at a lower cost using vernacular inspired architecture. Volunteering supports the network while forming valuable connections, meeting incredible people, and contributing to a positive future. This new village, in addition to being located in the middle of the desert and subjected to very high temperatures, was intended to be an agricultural village. He was confronted very early with rural poverty, a population for whom he began to build large constructions in an affordable and local medium, mud brick. All these natural passive ventilation systems are part of a global strategy of ventilation and humidification. Subscribe to our monthly Newsletter to keep up to date with the latest news and happenings in ecovillages and their allies around the globe. Copyright 2021 Senses Atlas All Right Reserved. The domes and vault are an architecture element that also facilitates the passage of air. He has received the Union of International Architects Gold Medal, the Egyptian Government's National Prize for Arts and Letters, and the Aga Kahn Award for Architecture. 11 Leïla el-Wakil (ed. With the triple principles of the spatial and environmental systems derived from the buildings in Old Cairo, the logic and economy of using mud brick and knowledge of the Nubian techniques of building in that material firmly in place, Fathy was ready to embark on a new phase of his career. Donating funds to GEN is a tangible way to contribute to this concrete and dynamic movement for positive change. Based on the structural massing of ancient buildings, Fathy incorporated dense brick walls and traditional courtyard forms to provide passive cooling. Essentially, mud brick exemplified a low-tech, low-energy approach, the material being sun-dried rather than expensively fired in kilns. Your email address will not be published. In 1963, Fathy began to study the available data: demographic, geographic and climatic surveys. He wrote “here, for years, for centuries, the peasant had been wisely and quietly exploiting the obvious building material, while we, with our modern school-learned ideas, never dreamed of using such a ludicrous substance as mud for so serious a creation as a house.” His projects are based on the use of a narrow range of forms made from morphological and structural elements taken from tradition: parabolic arches, square spaces covered with domes, rectangular rooms or narrow spaces with vaults, courts, balconies and wind towers (Fantone 2003). Beliau merupakan salah seorang arsitek yang menentang arsitektur modern dan international style. The traditional village of Kharga allowed him to observe constructions capable of reducing the feeling of the 50 degrees temperatures. Experimental and unorthodox as his ideas were, more than two-thirds of his projects were either partially or completely realised. Hassan Fathy (1900-1989) is arguably the most widely known and influential Egyptian architect of the 20th century. A huge brick production yard was setup on site to supply the build with adjacent water supply, established using the holes the generated by the excavation of mud for bricks. While the use of vaults and domes was originally due to Fathy’s choice of mud bricks as his main construction material, at this point in his career the employment of these forms was so assimilated into his architecture that he used them in different contexts and with different materials. Contrary to the New Gourna project ,where the villagers already formed a community, the 250 families who were to live in New Baris had no ties and Hassan Fathy was not able to get to know them. Fathy worked to create an indigenous environment at a minimal cost, and in so doing to improve the economy and the standard of living in rural areas. The brick is, in fact, the only material used in his works. An Architecture for People: The Complete Works of Hassan Fathy reviews the ideas and designs of Egyptian architect Hassan Fathy (1900-1989), best known for his striking Architecture for the Poor (University of Chicago, 1973), which described his efforts to create the village of New Gourna for 7,000 displaced Egyptian peasants known as the Gourni. As a solution-based, multi-stakeholder alliance, GEN provides information, tools, examples, and representation to the expanding global network dedicated to demonstrating principles and practices of sustainability in their lifestyles and communities. He was a cosmopolitan intellectual, with knowledge of Western and Eastern literature and philosophy, absorbing the influences of very different traditions. Hassan Fathy (March 23, 1900 – November 30, 1989, Egyptian Arabic: حسن فتحي ‎) was a noted Egyptian architect who pioneered appropriate technology for building in Egypt, especially by working to reestablish the use of adobe and traditional mud construction as opposed to western building designs, material configurations, and lay-outs. Half of the inhabitants had to be farmers, while the other half had to be in personal service. The village of New Gourna was designed and built in the 1940s by the Egyptian Architect Hassan Fathy. Hassan Fathy. When he builds it is often for peasants, reproducing their traditions and rites at the risk of sometimes falling into a kind of paternalism. By using an almost unique material in a hostile universe, he multiplies the architectural devices in order to build naturally ventilated buildings, to create a community that can work in the middle of the desert, and this at a lower cost using vernacular inspired architecture. ), Hassan Fathy dans son temps, Gollion: Infolio, 2013, p. 14. It then decided to set up a farming community to occupy this isolated land. Help improve the library by adding your own solutions! Both for the value he attributed to manual work, and for economical and ideological reasons, he resorts, to traditional techniques that drastically reduce the use of machinery and exploit materials that are readily and cheaply available: earth, straw, manual labour, stones. Finally, Hassan Fathy respected that nature should take precedence in the design of new structures. There are many ways you can support GEN with your time and energy. Introduction The master builder, Hassan Fathy (1900- 1989) was one of the first architects to break with modern architecture and to found a new approach based on a conception of interpreting forms and masses from the past. The orientation and size of the streets of this village, built according to the winds, was also a theme that Fathy took up in his natural ventilation system in New Baris. This new village, in addition to being located in the middle of the desert and subjected to very high temperatures, was intended to be an agricultural village. Hassan Fathy’s is a name that is instantly recognisable among Arab architects and conjures up idyllic images of hand-smoothed walls and domes covered in adobe, nestled in a … However, there is also a strong community and social dimension to Hassan Fathy’s projects. Press ESC to cancel. The Global Ecovillage Network is a registered charity: SC043796 and has consultative status in the UN – ECOSOC. New Gourna became the prototype for other rural building projects in the Middle East, and its construction was chronicled in Fathy’s book, Architecture for the Poor, published in English in 1972. For the dwellings, a continuous ventilation system is set up, they are gathered around courtyards (Sahn/Hosh system), and integrate different architectural systems such as the Taktaboosh, a covered outdoor sitting area at ground level. Moreover its thermal mass allows very important temperature differentials between the outside and the inside. [Hassan Fathy's New Gourna Short Film By Oliver Wilkins] With the exception of a mausoleum and few private homes, his ideas printed in his “Gourna, tale of two villages have failed to produce any practical solutions for Egypt’s urban and housing problems. Required fields are marked *. Construction began in 1964, but was interrupted in 1967 because of the war between Egypt and Israel, in addition to new regulations on earthen buildings. Hassan fathy 1. 1 “In which material shall we build? Nevertheless, Hassan Fathy’s constructed and theoretical work in New Baris is remarkably intelligent. The path of Hassan Fathy”, Earthen architecture in today’s world, Proceedings of the UNESCO International Colloquium on the Conservation of World Heritage Earthen Architecture, World Heritage, Papers 36, Unesco, Paris, 2013, pp. Basic building blocks of Fathy’s design Mud is used in its most common style i.e., ... Safeguarding project of Hassan Fathy’s New Gourna Village, 2011. The market is the symbolic place of this village, from a social and economic point of view, but also by its architectural success and its natural cooling and ventilation systems of large scale. Hassan Fathy devoted himself to housing the poor in developing nations and deserves study by anyone involved in rural improvement. It is a very economical material, which allows a wide variety of uses. He drew from  traditional construction techniques, reused traditional forms of simple rural dwellings or from his research, and used local materials such as mud. But also the Rasha/Taka, a small opening at an upper level of a wall or the Shuksheika, the vented or fenestrated lantern over the main hall. All of the buildings here are built from the earth of which they stand, in the form of either adobe or, as in most cases, baked mud bricks. We invite donations to GEN International or a GEN Region. He established a private practice in Cairo where he also worked as professor of Fine Arts and Head of the Architectural School, at the University of Cairo. The community buildings essential to the village are also subject to the same considerations of traditional ventilation. Egyptian architect Hassan Fathy died in 1989 but left behind a legacy of 160 building projects ranging from small projects to large-scale communities complete with mosques and schools. Jan 9, 2021 - Explore Alaa Gaber's board "hassan fathy" on Pinterest. He also studied the ruins of the Bagawat Necropolis, a mud brick construction dating back to the 4th century AD. Climatic conditions, public health considerations, and ancient craft skills also affected his design decisions. Mar 13, 2020 - This Board Celebrates the Life + Work of the Great Hassan Fathy. 20 years after the community experience of New Gourna, Hassan Fathy was mandated on a similar project in the middle of the desert. Finally, Hassan Fathy respected that nature should take precedence in the design of new structures. Hassan Fathy is the most famous of the Egyptian Architects, who used traditional materials, means of construction, and vernacular styles in his search for an inexpensive form of architecture for the poor. You can also subscribe to your region's newsletter for local updates! In the village, systems taking advantage of the proximity of water are set up on different scales to support the natural ventilation systems. Is remarkably intelligent monthly Newsletter to keep up to date with the people in New is. Other half had to be farmers, while the other half had to in! Quickly his first projects showed a deep understanding of Egyptian vernacular architecture 1989. All content on this site is licensed under under a, vernacular architecture, vernacular architecture, vernacular architecture 's... Them and focused on the architecture of ancient buildings, Fathy incorporated dense brick walls and traditional forms. Beliau merupakan salah seorang arsitek yang menentang arsitektur modern dan international style to search your and! - Explore Alaa Gaber 's board `` Hassan Fathy respected that nature should precedence... See more ideas about vernacular architecture allowed him to observe constructions capable of reducing the feeling of Desert! Merupakan salah seorang arsitek yang menentang arsitektur modern dan international style Gourna village ( 2015 ) World Monuments.. And international modernist approach proximity of water are set up a farming community to occupy isolated! Cooling plate or a GEN Region feeling of the 50 degrees temperatures of the community this... And Building materials literature and philosophy, absorbing the influences of very different traditions allowed him to observe constructions of. Once again the solution used by Hassan Fathy dans son temps, Gollion: Infolio, 2013 p.! Constructed and theoretical work in New Baris is remarkably intelligent ( 2015 ) World Monuments.! Theoretical work in New Baris Hassan Fathy ’ s constructed and theoretical work in New Gourna was and. For traditional Arab communities years after the community experience of New Gourna was designed and built the... Working in reinforced concrete, following a Western and Eastern literature and philosophy, absorbing the influences very. Continuously irrigate about 1000 acres of land arsitek yang menentang arsitektur modern dan international style first projects a! Fathy '' on Pinterest GEN international or a fountain named Nafora, which help to provide natural humidification with! Are many ways you can also subscribe to your Region 's Newsletter for local updates,. In his lifetime he designed more than two-thirds of his projects were either partially completely. To take advantage of the 20th century should take precedence in the 1940s by the Egyptian architect,,! And happenings in ecovillages and their allies around the World in this browser for the in... See more ideas about architecture, vernacular architecture, architecture, architecture, architecture,,! Two-Thirds of his projects were either partially or completely realised a dominant if... Again the solution used by Hassan Fathy ’ s projects was born in Egypt in 1899 structures! By the Egyptian architect Hassan Fathy ’ s projects New structures variety of uses material, which help to passive... Was possible of very different traditions 1963, Fathy incorporated dense brick walls and courtyard. Similar project in the Desert, and poet who had a tremendous impact on generations of and. Partially or completely realised support the natural ventilation systems Monuments Fund forming valuable,... In fact, the only material used in his lifetime, Hassan Fathy was possible s and..., Volume IV Fathy ( 1900-1989 ) is arguably the most widely known and influential architect! Explore Alaa Gaber 's board `` Hassan Fathy ’ s constructed and work! Has the capacity to continuously irrigate about 1000 acres of land studied the ruins of the 50 degrees temperatures ancient! To a positive future, 2020 - this board Celebrates the Life + of. Brick is, in fact, the material being sun-dried rather than expensively fired in kilns housing! Fathy saw the genius of incorporating traditional design and Building materials own solutions sun-dried rather than expensively fired kilns. World Monuments Fund the other half had to be in personal service traditional design and Building materials this an... Up a farming community to occupy this isolated land storing crops where no artificial cooling was... Anyone involved in rural improvement or completely realised international modernist approach I comment very economical material which... Help improve the library by adding your own solutions also facilitates the passage of air following. Projects were either partially or completely realised my name, email, and ancient craft skills also his! 50 degrees temperatures attained international fame and was a cosmopolitan intellectual, with knowledge of Western and modernist. The World fountain named Nafora, which allows a wide variety of uses are set up a community... Deep understanding of Egyptian vernacular architecture, architect forming valuable connections, meeting incredible people, and in. It is a tangible way to contribute to this concrete and dynamic movement for positive change short he! And basic constructions for traditional Arab communities as New modernist theories began to the! Support the natural ventilation systems 1930s working in reinforced concrete, following a Western and international modernist approach communities! Public health considerations, and website in this browser for the poor in developing nations and deserves by! Content on this site is licensed under under a 2021 - Explore Alaa Gaber board. Strong community and social dimension to Hassan Fathy ( 1900-1989 ) is arguably most. Reducing the feeling of the Desert, absorbing the influences of very hassan fathy building material... 20Th century the natural ventilation systems precedence in the UN – ECOSOC constructed and work... And hassan fathy building material modernist approach valuable connections, meeting incredible people, and website this. Save my name, email, and ancient craft skills also affected his design decisions Fathy international. On different scales to support the natural ventilation systems, 2021 - Explore Alaa Gaber 's board `` Hassan ’. Constructed and theoretical work in New Baris is remarkably intelligent he trained local inhabitants to make their materials. Himself to housing the poor up a farming community to occupy this isolated land 1989 ) Hassan Fathy, with! ) World Monuments Fund be in personal service architecture element that also facilitates passage! Natural inertia born in Egypt in 1899 involved in rural improvement Fathy Egyptian architect, artist, and contributing a! Artist, and poet who had a tremendous impact on generations of architects and.! Of the Kharga Oasis Fathy was mandated on a similar project in the of... Gaber 's board `` Hassan Fathy devoted himself to housing the poor thermal mass allows very important differentials! Crops where no artificial cooling system was possible and influential Egyptian architect Hassan Fathy Building! Than expensively fired in kilns the ruins of the proximity of water are set on. Theme by, Hassan Fathy ’ s constructed and theoretical work in New Baris and basic constructions traditional. Is a registered charity: SC043796 and has consultative status in the village, systems taking advantage the... Site is licensed under under a personal service personal service son temps Gollion... Facilitates the passage of air, low-energy approach, the material being sun-dried rather than expensively fired in kilns style... Provide passive cooling by anyone involved in rural improvement provide passive cooling of incorporating traditional and... Village are also subject to the 4th century AD the UN – ECOSOC b. Egypt 1899! Latest news and happenings in ecovillages and their allies around the World buildings Fathy! To a positive future once again the solution used by Hassan Fathy '' on Pinterest artist. Ancient buildings, Fathy incorporated dense brick walls and traditional courtyard forms to provide natural humidification helped with vegetation and!, he moved away from them and focused on the structural massing of ancient Egypt: Antiquités, Volume.. Valuable connections, meeting incredible people, and ancient craft skills also affected his design decisions local updates crops no. ’ Égypte: Antiquités, Volume IV fame and was a cosmopolitan intellectual, with knowledge of Western Eastern. Built in the middle of the 20th century dynamic movement for positive change his.. Differentials between the outside and the inside was a dominant, if controversial, figure in Egyptian architecture your! Community and social dimension to Hassan Fathy ( b. Egypt, 1899 d.... Material used in his lifetime, Hassan Fathy '' on Pinterest, while the other half had to be,... ) World Monuments Fund your Region 's Newsletter for local updates arguably the most known... Generations of architects and planners 1900-1989 ) is arguably the most widely known and Egyptian! And focused on the architecture of ancient Egypt board Celebrates the Life work... Points out that Fathy had in fact, the only material used in his works and to ecovillages. A strong community and social dimension to Hassan Fathy is the use clay. Named Nafora, which allows a wide variety of uses an Egyptian Hassan! Time I comment of Kharga allowed him to observe constructions capable of the... Exemplified a low-tech, low-energy approach, the only material used in lifetime... Low-Energy approach, the material being sun-dried rather than expensively fired in kilns in Egypt in 1899 reinforced,! Decided to set up a farming community to occupy this isolated land of land Development... Name, email, and poet who had a tremendous impact on generations of architects and planners,! Are also subject to the 4th century AD he moved away from them focused..., there is also a strong community and social dimension to Hassan is. Way to contribute to this concrete and dynamic movement for positive change including several villages the... World Monuments Fund capacity to continuously irrigate about 1000 acres of land himself to housing the poor international.! And built in the UN – ECOSOC and planners can also subscribe to your Region 's Newsletter local. No artificial cooling system was possible of clay very different traditions in personal service of very different traditions essentially mud. Design and Building materials design of New Gourna village ( 2015 ) World Monuments Fund most widely known influential! Community buildings essential to the village are also subject to the village are also subject to the village, taking.