Though many schools ban the chewing of gum during class, it turns out they may actually be doing their students a huge disservice. The present study was thus conducted to investigate whether chewing gum can enhance, learning using educationally realistic materials across a range of domains (science and. mean = 2.82) was also not statistically reliable, While these results do not provide evidence of an effect of chewing gum while, solving practice questions, the sensitivity of the above analyses is necessarily limited by the, small number of practice questions; inspection of Table 1 indicates variates in this phase, tended to be non-normally distributed, further limiting the capacity of these analyses to detect, differences between conditions. As a result each of these theories explains some, but not all learning phenomena. Results of Experiment 2, but not Experiment 1, indicated chewing gum enhanced alertness, during the self-study period, consistent with the findings of a number of previous studies. There is also evidence suggesting that chewing gum reduces stress. et al., 2006) and some have also found significant results (Allen et al., 2006; Johnston et al., 2012; Smith & Wood, 2012). In their Unified Model of Learning, Shell et al. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. developed by Dwyer (1972) for 20 minutes. Lesson Phase were time to solution, number of errors made, and number of practice questions, correct, controlling (where suitable) for prior variance in mathematics ability using the, Mathematics Pre-test. Individual Differences in Multiple Document Comprehension, The influence of strategies on relationships between working memory and cognitive skills. A number of available studies have measured alertness using, electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) rather. However, unlike Johnson et al. Students who chew gum while studying will report higher levels of alertness, Students who chew gum while studying will outperform those who do not chew gum, = 2.43). Rather than being a mere review of the literature, this work is a synthesis. Recent research has demonstrated chewing gum can enhance various cognitive processes associated with learning, but most studies have used cognitive functioning tasks (e.g., selective attention and working memory) as outcomes. Several ANCOVA assumptions were not tenable. Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. individual participants included in the study. Furthermore, in the test phase, chewers, compared to non-chewers, made fewer errors and answered a greater number of test questions correctly. The academic literature is filled with models about learning, teaching and instruction. (1951). Interested person should contact us now. The comprehension questions were designed to measure, simultaneously. Recent research has demonstrated chewing gum can enhance various cognitive processes associated with learning, but most studies have used with each page including a black and white diagram illustrating points discussed in the text. Hypotheses in this study focused on effects of chewing gum on alertness, based on responses, to the following items: alert/drowsy, attentive/dreamy, energetic/lethargic, clear-, headed/muzzy, well-coordinated/clumsy, quick-witted/mentally slow, strong/feeble, and, proficient/incompetent. Students were then given 15 minutes to study while using the rote learning techniques to memorize spelling words; however, they were not given any gum. Following recent studies on cognitive effects of chewing gum (e.g. Simpson, 2011; Morgan, Johnson, & Miles, 2014). I do not mean drinking a lot of tea or coffee—or worse, so-called energy drinks—which also have side effects, but approaches like exercising, getting a good night's sleep, and managing stress, which might be safer and healthier ways of increasing alertness. variance in psycho-educational phenomena: Exploring motivation, engagement. The most obvious question then is, “Why do we need another theory/model of learning?” Our answer is that the current literature contains only limited theories about isolated specific learning and instructional phenomena. Think about the following things before you slide the next piece of gum to your children. The theory of the estimation of test reliability. Means (M), Standard Deviations (SD), and Anderson-Darling Test p-value (A-D) for Mathematics Pre-Test; Pre-Lesson Alertness Ratings; Total Practice Test Questions Correct, Time to Solution, and Errors; Post-Lesson Alertness Ratings; and Total Test Questions Correct, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Paul Ginns, This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by John Wiley and Sons in, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acp.3467, Chewing gum while studying: Effects on alertness and test performance. First, it was hypothesised that participants in the, chewing gum condition would have enhanced alertness during the lesson phase which would, have led to improvements in learning and thus, improvements in post-lesson test, performance. 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